The magnesium battery has a very large theoretical capacities. Owing to the divalent nature of Mg2+ ions, it has substantially higher volumetric and gravimetric capacities. (3833 mAh cm-3 and 2205mAh g-1 respectively). Mg batteries do not experience the irreversible capacity loss due to the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation that usually occurs in many battery systems including Li and Na. In addition, Mg has better stability in the ambient environment hence the battery packaging does not require any inert atmosphere. Mg metal also lacks dendrite formation and associated battery failure due to internal short circuit.
The main challenge of Mg battery research is the development of compatible cathode material. Unlike the Li+ ion, the Mg2+ divalent ion is more electropositive. Since the ionic radii of both the ions are more or less same (Li+ - 0.76Å, Mg2+ - 0.72Å) the effective charge density of Mg ion is even higher. Hence, Mg2+ ion exhibit more effective columbic interaction with the cathode materials. This interaction kinetically sluggish Mg-ion intercalation to the cathode lattice, and causes low energy/ power density.
In order to overcome the energy density and power density limitations of Mg batteries, they have designed and synthesized defective metal oxide cathodes. Mg-ion storage, in this case, follows a pseudocapacitive mechanism, where defects such as oxygen vacancies act as intercalation pathways for Mg-ions. Diffusion independent nature of pseudocapacitive mechanism enables ultrafast charging (high power density) of the Mg battery.
They are looking for partners/ collaborators in battery research area for license and technical cooperation agreements to develop defect engineered cathode materials, fabrication of pouch and cylindrical type Mg batteries and its commercialization.